During the early days of the automobile, it was difficult to start a car using a hand crank, and it was even harder to bring it to a halt once it had begun moving. Drivers relied on a block of wood to create friction on the wheels to stop a carriage. However, even though the lever system was capable, it was only effective when the carriage was moving slowly, approximately ten to twenty miles per hour. In 1890, the Michelin brothers introduced pneumatic rubber tires, and their idea came to replace the use of wood block for braking.
History Of Automotive Braking System The introduction of electronic controlled braking systems was in 1898. The man who patented this idea was Frederick William, who was an English engineer. However, the first electric car was invented in Cleveland by Elmer Ambrose Sperry and the car relied on disc brakes to stop or slow down the car. The disc brakes were attached to the front wheels, and this made it difficult to halt the vehicle when it was moving faster. Even though these particular brakes were more effective than the earlier systems, they produced a screeching noise that was horrible. The noise was caused by the copper brake linings, which moved against the metal disc. This problem was not quickly solved, and it was after five years when Herbert Frood found a solution by lining the pads with asbestos. This new invention was embraced until the year 1980 when it was eliminated because of safety and health concerns. Mechanical Drum Brakes, 4 Wheel Brakes, And Hydraulic Brakes Mechanical drum brakes were invented in 1899, and it was the first braking system to have a cable wrapped around a drum, which was anchored to the chassis of the vehicle. However, the formula was only used on the rear wheels and was operated using a hand lever. Four wheel brakes were invented in 1915, and it was the first time the brakes were applied to all four wheels of the vehicle. With this improved braking system, drivers could reach a speed of eighty miles per hour and stop without any problems. Hydraulic brakes come about around 1918. The hydraulic braking system was invented by Malcolm Lougheed, who later changed his name to Lockheed. This improved braking system used tubes and cylinders to apply pressure against the brake shoes, causing them to push against the drums. Modern Automotive Braking SystemABS System The anti-lock brake system is a computerized braking system that works on all four wheels of a vehicle. The ABS has four main components, which makes it effective at stopping and slowing down a vehicle even when it’s traveling at a high rate of speed. 1. Speed Sensors 2. Pump 3. Valves 4. Controller Speed Sensors The work of speed sensors is to notify the ABS when the wheels are about to lock. The speed sensors are located on both the front and the rear wheels of a vehicle, and their job is to provide lock information to the anti-lock braking system. Pump The work of the pump is to make sure that the pressure is not lost. After the valves releases pressure from the brakes, the pump gets the pressure pumped back up. The more the brakes are applied the more pressure is pumped back up. Valves Each brake has a brake line with a valve inside, which is controlled by the anti-lock braking system. However, you need to acknowledge the valve can be set at three different positions depending on the system of the vehicle. Controller A controller is simply a computer, which is placed inside the car. The role of the controller is to monitor speed sensors and also control the valves. It would be impossible for an ABS system to work efficiently without the presence of a controller. How Does ABS Work? How the ABS works depends on the type of brakes installed in a vehicle. Moreover, the anti-lock braking system can function differnetly depending on the number of channels that are in use. This refers to the number of valves being controlled as well as the number of speed sensors. The ABS best scheme is the four-channel with four sensors. That’s because a speed sensor is placed on all four wheels with a separate valve for the four wheels. This type of setup makes it easy for the controller to monitor each wheel and as a result achieves maximum braking force. Three Channel, Three-Sensor Anti-lock Braking System The three-channel, three-sensor is also effective, and the only difference is only a single valve is used for the rear wheels. However, a speed sensor is available on all the four wheels and a separate valve for the front wheels. This type of braking system can be seen on old vehicles having four-wheel anti-lock braking system. One Channel, One-Sensor Anti-Lock Brake SystemThis braking system is common in pickup trucks having rear-wheel anti-lock braking system. Moreover, you need to understand this type of braking uses one valve to control both rear wheels. It also has a one-speed sensor, which is found on the rear axle. The controller monitors the rear wheels together and both start to lock at the same time when the ABS is applied. Conclusion The anti-lock braking system has proved to be a success on all vehicles. Drivers can now accelerate and brake quickly without having to lose control of their vehicles. Furthermore, this type of modern braking system is easy to maintain and lasts longer before experiencing any major issues.
There are very few body-on-edge SUVs left. And even less of them with the 2016 Toyota 4Runner’s notoriety for ability, life span and solid resale. Intended to handle the hardest rough terrain obstructions, the 4Runner is about the mission. Of course, the Ford Explorer and Nissan Pathfinder offer a smoother ride and all the more cutting edge highlights. They even accompany progressed AWD frameworks for differing rough terrain conditions.
A flat tire is one of the best ways to ruin your day. Not only do you have to jack up the car, take the flat tire off, and put the spare on (or call a service like AAA), you have to suffer the inconvenience of having the puncture repaired. But how does a tire repair work, is it effective and when is a tire considered to be irreparable?